The construction of a wind farm in Sutherland led to an 80% drop in the number of golden plovers in the area, according to a five-year study.
Scientists have now said their research project should be used as the basis for future studies on the effects of wind farms on other bird species.
The study was funded by the Gordonbush site’s owners, energy company SSE, and conducted by RSPB Scotland.
SSE said it had tried to minimise any potential risk to golden plovers.
The study monitored golden plover numbers before, during and after construction.
According to the report, the drop in numbers was greater than in areas surrounding the wind farm that were studied over the same period.
Lead researcher Dr Alex Sansom said: “Golden plovers breed in open landscapes and it is likely that the presence of wind turbines in these areas leads to birds avoiding areas around the turbines.
“This study shows that such displacement may cause large declines in bird numbers within wind farms.
“It will be important to examine whether these effects are maintained over the longer term at this site, and we should also use these detailed studies to examine the effects of wind farms on other bird species.”